Collapse, in a medical context, refers to a sudden and significant decrease in vital function that can lead to loss of consciousness and, in severe cases, death. It is an emergency medical situation requiring immediate assessment and treatment.


Collapse can be caused by a variety of conditions and factors, including:

  • Severe hypotension: A sudden drop in blood pressure can reduce blood flow to vital organs, including the brain.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias: Irregular or rapid heartbeat that affects blood circulation.
  • Shock: A severe condition caused by insufficient blood flow in the body, which can be triggered by large blood loss, severe infection (sepsis), severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) or other causes.
  • Severe Dehydration or Electrolyte Imbalances: They can affect the normal functioning of organs.
  • Neurological Conditions: Such as seizures or strokes.
  • Severe Respiratory Problems: Like respiratory failure or pulmonary embolism.


Symptoms that may accompany or predict a collapse include:

  • Numbness or weakness
  • Feeling faint or dizzy
  • Confusion or difficulty concentrating
  • Palpitations or chest pain
  • Rapid breathing or shortness of breath
  • Cold sweats and pale skin

First Aid and Treatment

  1. Safety Assessment and Assurance: Check that the patient is breathing and has a pulse. If he is unconscious but breathing, place him in the side safety position.
  2. Requesting Medical Help: Call emergency services immediately if a person collapses.
  3. Symptom Monitoring: Until medical help arrives, monitor breathing, pulse and level of consciousness.
  4. Treatment of the Base Case: In hospital, treatment will be directed at the underlying cause of the collapse.


Preventing collapse involves effective management of chronic conditions, maintaining adequate hydration, avoiding known triggers and regular medical check-ups, especially if there are pre-existing medical conditions that may increase the risk of collapse.


Collapse is a medical emergency that can be caused by a variety of conditions. Early recognition of signs and symptoms and rapid reaction are crucial to ensure a positive outcome. Correct and prompt management of health conditions that can lead to collapse is also essential for its prevention.